Entrepreneurship


In February 2015, Unitec New Zealand held an entrepreneurship workshop. Unitec used the “Disciplined Entrepreneurship, 24 Steps To A Successful Start-up” book which was written by Bill Aulet, a senior lecturer at the MIT Sloan School of Management, as the principle reference. A part of the workshop was held in Guatemala and was organised by MIT. I was curious about this MIT workshop in Guatemala so I decided to attend the workshop and considered its fee as a long-term investment.

Unfortunately, I had a personal situation (my husband was made redundant after working for almost 19 years) that needed my attention. Hence, I did not complete the workshop at Unitec and I took my time to complete my reading. Therefore, I will record my thoughts about Bill Aulet’s book and my experience attending the workshop at Unitec.

Disciplined Entrepreneurship, 24 Steps To A Successful Start-up

24 Steps To A Successful Start-up

Bill Aulet divides the 24 Steps into six themes.

The six themes are:

1.      “Who Is Your Customer?”

a.     Market Segmentation

b.     Select a Beachhead Market

c.      Build an End User Profile

d.     Calculate the Target Addressable Market (TAM) Size for the Beachhead Market,

e.     Profile the Persona for the Beachhead Market, and Identify Your Next 10 customers.

2.      “What Can You Do For Your Customer?”

a.     Full Life Cycle Use Case,

b.     High-Level Product Specification,

c.      Quantify the Value Proposition,

d.     Define Your Core,

e.     Chart Your Competitive Position.

3.      “How Does Your Customer Acquire Your Product?”

a.     Determine the Customer’s Decision-Making Unit (DMU),

b.     Map The Process to Acquire a Paying Customer

c.      Map the Sales Process to Acquire a Customer.

4.      “How Do You Make Money Off Your Product?”

a.      Design a Business Model,

b.      Set Your Pricing Framework,

c.       Calculate the Lifetime Value (LTV) of an Acquired Customer,

d.      Calculate the Cost of Customer Acquisition (COCA).

5.     “How Do You Design & Build Your Product?”

a.     Identify Key Assumptions,

b.     Test Key Assumptions,

c.      Define the Minimum Viable Business Product (MVBP),

d.     Show That “The Dogs Will Eat The Dog Food”.

6.     “How Do You Scale Your Business?”

a.     Calculate the TAM Size for Follow-on Markets

b.     Develop a Product Plan.

Let me discuss the six themes from my perspective. FYI, I am not an expert but I do have related knowledge and experience so I am trying to be as objective as possible in writing down my opinion.

In the first theme, Bill Aulet provides a method to create a new venture, from how to obtain an idea, how to form the founding team, how to access the needs from potential customers and how to determine the target market. It is basically using a primary market research to define your beachhead, to build an End User and your Persona, and to identify your 10 Customers, including the usage of bottom-up and top-down analysis to calculate the TAM.

The primary market research is the key information to help us making decision. Hence, it should be well conducted so we can produce a useful and accurate (if possible) information to enable us developing our product and to determine which customer who will use and pay for our product.

In the second theme, I believe the Full Life Cycle Use Case is similar to understand our target customer behaviour especially the customer’s value chain and what obstacles we are going to deal with. Then, we tailor our product specification to match the customer’s needs. We create our product benefits by features so customers can relate the visual product benefits to their current systems and needs. Hence, it would be easier for us to quantify the value proposition by converting the visual benefits into tangible metrics that align with our customer’s high priorities. Therefore, we can define our core by differentiating our product value to others. In other words, “how we do it and what you get from us” will differ us to other competitors.

In the third theme, we will determine how our customers acquire our product by understanding how the customer makes a decision to purchase and who influences that decision to buy and pay for our product. Then, we map the process to acquire a paying customer, from initial contact to final payment. Before we create that map, we should comprehend the customer’s buying process and the length of sales cycle. We need to build foundation for the Cost of Customer Acquisition (COCA) calculation, and identify the hidden obstacles that we are going to face in selling our product and getting paid. We need to remember that the sales process will drive the cost of obtaining customers and will impact on the business profit. When we map the sales process, we should consider the most effective and efficient method to minimise the COCA.

In the fourth theme, we consider our customer’s perspective of how they want to acquire our product and to pay us. What we want to know is “how much value the customer gets from our product?” We also need to consider the market competition and distribution channel when designing our business model. Then, we set our pricing framework based on our Quantified Value Proposition and Business model. The objective of our pricing framework is to calculate Life Time Value of an Acquired Customer (LTV) and COCA.

The LTV is a present net value of our revenue during a short-term period, usually five years. In other words, how much net profit our product will generate from year 0 to year 5 in dollars. If you have not studied finance or investment, I suggest you may have problems to calculate the LTV. I think it is best to ask a professional to do the calculation. However, we need to understand what the figures means to our profit and what factors that drive the value of our LTV so we understand the risks and find solutions to minimise our risks.

The COCA is the costs to acquire a customer over short-term, medium-term and long-term period. Our sales process will determine COCA. Yes, we want to minimise COCA but what we need to do is to determine an effective and efficient COCA over time periods. This can be difficult to achieve if we do not understand what factors that drive COCA. Bill Aulet suggested a Top-down perspective to calculate COCA. A Top-down perspective is to tabulate aggressive sales and marketing expenses over a time period then, divided by total number of new customer we acquired within that time period. I suggest we consult a professional with COCA knowledge to determine the factors that drive our COCA.

This fourth theme is about how we make profit from our business by identifying the underlying factors that influence our LTV and COCA.

In the fifth theme, we design and build our product by identifying and breaking down our key assumptions based on our primary market research, our gross margin, our “lighthouse” and “linchpin” customers’ list and the Decision-Making Unit (DMU). Then, we validate our key assumptions. Afterward, we define our Minimum Viable Business Product (MVBP) by integrating our assumptions into a system test to understand if our customer will use our product and pay for it. The objective of this MVBP is to find out whether our product provides value to the customer or not. In this theme, we want to show that “The dogs will eat the dog food”. In other words, we want to show to our investors or stakeholders that customers will use and pay for our product because they get the value of our product.

In the final theme, we want to expand our business. It is about creating a growth strategy for our product. When we develop our product plan, we need to calculate the TAM for follow-on markets and establish the MVBP to suit the follow-on markets.

I cannot provide more detail information about the six themes, as I do not want to breach the copyright. I think this “Disciplined Entrepreneurship” book is good to have and read, whether you are a student, an employee or an entrepreneur wannabe. Unless you have a business background and understand the basic information systems, I think you may need to form a discussion group to learn more about the 24 Steps. It will benefit you to invite people, who have the relevant expertise, to discuss the 24 Steps. Alternatively, you can look for a similar entrepreneurship workshop that Unitec holds.

Entrepreneurship Workshop at Unitec

The workshop at Unitec provided opportunities to apply the 24 Steps method into practise. It was about creative thinking process. It was about interaction among team members. We had our mentors to be consulted when we did not understand an issue. We had guess speakers who shared their experience in starting a business etc.

I found the workshop was interesting because I was challenged to be more open-minded, kept my positive thinking and “can do” attitude. I think the most interesting part is dealing with teamwork, especially when defining what product we were going to create and what value of product we could offer to target customers so they would use and pay for it.

When I am writing down this article, I take a step back and observe my experience attending that workshop. I have to admit that it was the most challenging teamwork that I ever had in my life. I think the story would be different if we were paid to do the project so we could make it as our top priority. What I learn from that workshop is that I need to be more patient and tolerant when dealing with people who have their own learning pace, interest and priority. Overall the workshop is a good place to learn and collaborate with people from different backgrounds.

As my financial situation has changed, I will be busy looking for a job. It will be very difficult to get a job, as I do not have New Zealand experience. However, I keep trying. I will update my blog next year when I want to discuss my trading performance on Trademe.

I confirm that I am not paid to write this article.

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MIT Global Start-up 2015


How did I know about this MIT Global Start-up (MIT GSW) conference that was held in Guatemala City from 25th to 27th March 2015? It was because Unitec runs an Entrepreneurship for Global Impact workshop series. I will write about this Unitec’s workshop as soon as I complete it on July 2015. This time, I want to write my experience at the MIT GSW conference.

1

I attended this MIT GSW conference because I wanted to meet new people from around the world and to listen to whatever topics/ideas they have in their mind. This conference itself had its own programme that discussed different topics about how to start-up a business, where to look for funding resources, how to keep being passionate and focus when facing challenges etc. If you are new to this entrepreneurship idea or you want to know more about starting up a business then this conference suits you.

2

For me, I preferred to meet and talk to these young people from around the world. They are brilliant and inspiring people. They have guts to take an action to achieve their goals. I remembered there was this young student who had an idea and he presented his idea at the pitching challenge in front of the conference audience. Unfortunately, he did not go to the final. After the pitching he came to me and said that the panels did not favour his idea because it might be too small project for them. I told him to do it by himself. I thought it was a good practice for him so I encouraged him to take an action. I told him to work with his friends and to finance it by himself. I also advised him to take a step back if his project operating costs exceed his budget. I told him to take advantage of him being a student and utilise his networks at his university. He said he would do it. I hope his project can be developed into something big. It would be a delight for me to read the news about his project in the future.

3

I also met a young lady who is a home décor designer. She wants to create products that use Guatemalan fabrics to help her own people who produce the fabrics. She is targeting Europe market and has a chance to enter Germany’s market. The problem was that there are enquiries regarding the material used and production processes. We discussed that the European customers are more environmental sustainability oriented so I asked why she did not involve in the production process, from selecting and using ingredients process to the Mayan women who make the fabrics. As a designer, she has a responsibility to convey the message from the customer to manufacturers and vice versa. I told her that I am a housewife who is on holiday at the conference so it is her job to design something that can convey the message to people like me who is called a shopper from hell by my husband lol.

4

Besides these young people, I also met professionals and have a chat with them. It is inspiring to see how they are willing to come to this conference and be updated with the latest trend within the youngster mindset.

5

One thing that really impressed me was the team from Brazil who participated in the Business Plan Competition. They have this business idea that is very feasible. Unfortunately they did not win the competition. I love to invest in their business and help them to deliver. I do hope one of the panels will invest and help them because they deserve it. I think their product will help small medium businesses to be more efficient and productive. Damn, why did they not win the competition?

6

After I returned to NZ, I would like to do something to help these young people implementing their ideas even though I can only contribute a small amount and I understand that it will be a very high-risk investment. After completing my workshop at Unitec, I think I will set up a limited liability entity in NZ that focuses on foreign investments. It is a very risky option but I just rely on the finance philosophy “High Risk High Return”.

I may go to MIT GSW 2016 to meet new young people in a different country. If you are interest at attending the similar conference you can contact MIT GSW. I confirm that I am not paid by the MIT GSW organiser to promote its programme.

My Online Trading Experience  


Happy New Year 2015

This time I want to share my experience in selling my handmade products on Trademe, which is similar to eBay. Prior to list my product on Trademe, I have checked the New Zealand Inland Revenue to ensure that my trading activity will be categorised as a hobby, not a commercial one. I also keep recording and documenting all transactions. Well, I hold a bachelor degree in Accountancy and a diploma in business studies so I prefer to implement my knowledge into this hobby project.

I have chosen Trademe because it is a leading trading website in New Zealand and it is one of the most competitive market for similar products. A friend of mine told me that it was very difficult for her to sell her handmade products on Trademe so I thought if I could sell my products on Trademe then I would be able to sell them any where in New Zealand lol.

The most important thing to do as a new player is to raise product awareness. I have to be careful in making market penetration plan and how to build up my customer base. As a producer and seller, I believe my handmade products are good and different to competitors’ goods. However, customers have their own consideration and buying behaviour towards new products from an unknown seller. Hence, a careful plan is needed to introduce my new products to my target customers on Trademe. The problem is I do not know the demographic of my target customers on Trademe. Consequently, I have to take a risk. In other words, I have to prepare for a loss performance although conversely I have to minimise the loss.

Prior to list my products, I must decide how much sunk cost I want to spend for advertising on Trademe and estimate the success fee. This is a must to do before I determine my product pricing. I also look at the pricing range for similar products from competitors and analyse their pricing strategy. I look at the additional value of their products and the reasons why their products are sold at that price and why people buy them. Once I can make an assumption then, I can determine my pricing strategy for that niche market.

On 15 May 2014, I put a listing for my products and decided to spend NZD 20.00 to advertise them. As for pricing strategy, I offered my soaps at an introductory price. By the end of May 2014, I sold three soaps to a new customer and earned a feedback. At that time, I thought I should focus on earning feedback to encourage other customers to purchase my products. Thus, I selected an auction method to quickly earn feedback. However, I had to be fair to my customer who already purchased the same products. Consequently, I looked for the smallest and uneven soap bars. I was lucky I had a few of lip balms too. Thus, I decided to auction them at $1.00 reserve price in the following month. There were two new customers who won the auctions and I received two feedbacks.

Peppermint Soap

Green tea & lemongrass soap

Eucalyptus

When I run out my advertising sunk cost, I decided that I did not to want spend more dollars. At that time I had a lot of experimental soaps. I told myself to offer them at variable cost. I thought it was a fair deal. I could use the revenue from selling experimental soaps to cover the Trademe advertising cost and success fees. I thought some customers could be encouraged to purchase the experimental soaps at variable cost. I took a risk to sell my experimental soaps because if the customers did not like the soaps then I would receive bad feedback.

Experimental lavender soap

Experimental jasmine soap

Experimental passionfruit soap

Experimental vanilla soap

On 28 June 2014, I listed my experimental soap bars on Trademe. Within two days I sold two experimental soaps to a new customer and received a good feedback. These experimental soaps are well received by customers as I sold 73% of them from June until December 2014 and I earned sixteen feedbacks. Unfortunately, I only sold two soap bars at their normal price during that period. Well it is quite understandable, as people tend to purchase popular products especially when they are offered at variable cost.

Experimental cake soap

Experimental goat milk soap

Experimental round soap

Experimental cocoa soap

On August 2014, I had five jars of handmade body lotions that were close to expire. I decided to auction them at $1.50 reserve price. I sold two jars of handmade body lotions to a repeating customer and a new one. Afterwards, there were a significant number of views for the remaining auctions and they were sold to a new customer. Subsequently, the number of views kept being significant. The sales performance of experimental soaps stayed strong. It meant that the product awareness plan had been successfully implemented.

Body cream

On November 2014, Trademe introduced a multi-quantity buy now for my product. I thought it was a good intention of Trademe to simplify the sales transaction procedure. I voluntarily joined the programme. By the end of November, I sold four experimental soaps only. I wondered what happened to my sales performance considering Christmas was coming at that time. I checked the number of views and they were strong. There was a Trademe member who wanted to purchase my soaps but she could not use the buy now option. The transaction did not happen so I thought that she lost her interest.

I was bothered with the poor sales performance on November so I decided to list my products at special price on the following month. I considered it was time for Christmas sale. No sales transaction took place! Something went wrong. Auction method was handy to boost up my sales performance but which soaps should be auctioned? I looked at my stock and apparently my most expensive soap bars had not been sold. Should I auction them? But their variable costs are way too expensive. I was in a dilemma! On one hand I want to increase my sales figure, on another hand I want to minimise the loss. Well it is a hobby project and I have been preparing myself for the loss. Thus, I made a decision to daily auction my expensive soaps for $1.00 each from 11 December to 31 December 2014. I sold 40% of the auctions to six new customers and five feedbacks have been received so far.

Jasmine soap

Rose soap

One of those customers told me that she could not use buy now option to purchase my experimental soaps. I thought something wrong with Trademe system so I withdrew one listing as it had one bar left in stock. A few days later, Trademe staff dropped an email to inform me that he deleted my profile because I referred Trademe members to my personal email on my blog. I was pissed off so I created a new profile on my Trademe account and wrote that if Trademe staff deletes my profile again, I will close my accounts with Trademe and will list my products with other trading website. I feel good afterwards lol.

I linked the information given to me about my customer not able to use buy now option to the similar information I received on November. I analysed the related sales performance and concluded that the multi-quantity buy now option was the reason for my poor performance. To be qualified to use the buy now option, a Trademe member who wants to purchase an item should be an authenticated member and has the minimum amount on his/her Trademe account. As a seller, I do not give a damn if my customer is an authenticated member or not. I do not give a damn if my customer has $0.00 on his/her Trademe account either. I only care if my customer wants to purchase my products that he/she can put a bid on my listing or can use buy now option. I chose a bank transfer as the payment method so I do not care if my customer has a credit card or not. I emailed Trademe and told its staffs that I would not use the multi-quantity buy now option any more as it did not work for me. What does it mean to you? It means you need to understand how the trading website system works. They may have a good intention but if their system/application/option does not work for you then you should abandon them to minimise the loss.

I have analysed my trading performance from 15 May to 31 December 2014. The net profit from Trademe is NZD 126.22. Yes, it is a profit considering the cost of goods sold is sunk cost. However, I want to apply the benefits vs cost perspective to gain a better understanding of my expenditure. Sunk cost can not be recovered but I want to forecast my 2015 profit/loss. The sunk cost for goods sold from 15 May to 31 December 2014 is NZD 301.25. It means the loss is NZD 175.03. I breakdown the figures and identify that the expensive soaps sold via auction at $1.00 reserve price is the reason for the loss. What benefits I earned from that loss? The answer is five good feedbacks. It means I do not need to spend more dollars to advertise them.

I think I want to change my selling tactic this year. I will avoid the auction method and focus on selling my products at their normal price. It will be a challenge but we’ll see how it goes.


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Trademe Update


Hi All

I have promised you to write my experience in selling my handmade products on Trademe.co.nz (similar to eBay). However, I prefer to wait and see the Trademe market response. One thing for sure, my experimental soaps receive a good feedback from my customers. So my apology for the delay.

You can find out my listing activity if you click the following link:

soaps-by-kowhai

 

 

Thank You My Friends


I am grateful that I have joined and participated on the social blogs such Facebook and Kompasiana. I have virtually met people and exchanged our ideas about anything.

Even though we have not met in our real life, I can learn what they like and dislike. I can ask for their opinion or assistance. It is like there is no distance among us as being friends.

I have asked my virtual friends to be volunteers for my handmade soaps and creams. Their feedbacks are precious! Their willingness to try my soaps and creams without knowing my real background is very much appreciated.

It is an honour to be trusted. Thank you very much for your help, my friends. I do love you all.

Introduce your product


The latest update for my handmade soap on Trademe.co.nz (similar to ebay) is a challenge.

Prior to post my soap listing, I browsed the handmade soaps offered by my competitors to determine my introduction price. I chose to determine a high selling price for my soap, which is NZD 10.00, in order to understand the Trademe market response. There were only two views and my competitors started to set their selling price above mine as the result.

At the time my listing expired, Trademe offered me to re-list my soap for free. Hence, I have used the opportunity to reduce my selling price to NZD 8.00. So far, I have four views. Well it certainly is better than the last time. We’ll see how it goes.

If none will bid for that price, I will not reduce my selling price. Instead of lowering my price for that soap, I might list a different soap to suit the potential demand on Trademe.

The good news is my friend loves my facial soap. She contacted me to purchase the soap. I was so happy to get a first customer. I think her willingness to buy my soap is her appreciation for the quality of my product. I am optimist that I will sell more facial soaps in the future.

Image

In terms of sending my lotion and soap to Indonesia, I had a problem with the Indonesian custom that considered my parcel as for a commercial purpose. I asked them to provide me the related regulation but so far they referred me to the regulation for commercial purposes only. Thus, I did not want to comply with those regulations, as my parcel is non-commercial (or gift parcel). The Indonesian custom owns my parcel now. Well it was sunk cost.

That incident showed me that no matter how much I learned taxation to understand the difference between the intention to send a gift and the intention to sell product nor that I have read the related Indonesian regulation in regard to sending samples, there might be an external factor to be a barrier in the future.

In concluding my writing, I think there are many ways to introduce your product to your target markets. What you need is to understand how to penetrate the market and the customer buying behaviour. I think the marketing textbooks can be basic information for you to explore. However, the ability to understand your target market challenges is the most useful tool to sell your product.


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Sunk Cost


It takes me months to write the second article about my soap and lotion projects, my apology. However, all my articles will be written based on my own experience.

This time, I want to discuss about sunk cost because this cost is essential in initiating a small business/project and an important aspect in the decision-making process.

According to http://accountingdictionary.org/dictionary/sunk-cost/, sunk cost is defined as a cost that was incurred in the past and which cannot be changed and so is not relevant for future decision-making.

In the earliest stage of soap and lotion making, I have a dilemma in determining how much sunk cost I want to spend. In other words, how much I was willing to spend to buy equipment, variable costs such as oils and attending workshops for my projects. What benefit I would receive for sacrificing my funds? It took me ages to consider sunk cost because of the other opportunities that I had to forgo. For examples: to save my funds in the bank and receive interest, or to buy nice clothes while NZD is overvalued, or to voluntarily repay my student loan.

However, I have made a decision about sunk cost because I need a standard/benchmark for the quality of my products. I have categorised my sunk cost into three categories. The first category is knowledge such as books and workshops. The second category is equipment and variable costs. The third category is distribution and promotion.

The first category is easy. I need to select what books I want to buy, what workshops I want to attend. I can estimate the related costs and make a plan to fund those costs.

The second category is a bit difficult to decide, as there are so many options. Hence, I make my own rule that my decision to spend the sunk cost for this category will be based on the minimum price and durability of equipment. For the variable costs, I choose NZ and Indonesian products, as I want to make a small contribution to those countries.

The third category is the most difficult thing to estimate, as it involves the weight of final products to be sent and the possibility to repeat the shipment. I have sent my first soap samples to Indonesia and there was a problem, the soap samples experienced an oxidation that made them smell strangely. Hence, I make another experiment to test the oxidation process during delivery. I need to do this because I have to make the facial soap by myself until I can convince myself that my facial soaps can be produced in Indonesia to minimise the production cost.

It will be a long process to find out the result of my sunk cost. The good news is that I will test the NZ handmade soap market through Trademe.co.nz prior to the Christmas season. I can do this because I have positive feedback from my NZ friends who have tried my soap samples. Thus, the related sunk cost for the third category in NZ will be the placement fee on Trademe. I will let you know how it goes.


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The Power of Information


Di tulisan ini, saya ingin menekankan pentingnya informasi dalam membuat keputusan.

Ketika saya yakin saya ingin membuat sabun dan krim sendiri, saya mulai mengumpulkan informasi melalui internet, buku-buku dan kursus. Supaya lebih memahami bagaimana caranya membuat sabun, saya memilih Youtube untuk membantu saya memvisualisasikan tingkat kesulitan dan tehnik proses pembuatan sabun.

Kemudian saya membeli buku-buku untuk mendapatkan dasar teori pembuatan sabun. Buku-buku tsb menyediakan informasi mengenai bahan baku, peralatan, keamanan proses dan produknya. Lalu saya mengambil kursus untuk bisa langsung mengamati proses pembuatan sabun.

Karena bahan kimia seperti NaOH dipakai dalam pembuatan sabun, saya membutuhkan informasi lebih lanjut mengenai health and safety. Saya mempelajari karakter dari bahan baku seperti minyak nabati, apakah bisa membuat kulit iritasi atau tidak, peralatan apa yang cocok untuk penggunaan bahan kimia, di mana harus mendapatkan suppliers, apakah mereka menerapkan konsep ramah lingkungan atau tidak dll.

Semua informasi yang dikumpulkan sangat penting tapi masih baku. Saya butuh mengaplikasikan pengetahuan akuntansi, keuangan dan marketing saya untuk membuat sabun. Ada beberapa hal yang harus dipertimbangkan untuk membuat sabun termasuk biaya untuk membeli bahan baku dan peralatan, bagaimana untuk membiayai percobaan membuat sabun, siapa konsumen yang akan ditargetkan dll. Saya pikir hal ini lebih baik didiskusikan di tulisan lain.

Intinya adalah anda harus mempertimbangkan informasi sebelum membuat keputusan.

The Power of Information


In this article, I want to highlight the important role of information in decision-making process.

When I confirmed myself that I wanted to create my own soaps and lotions, I started to collect information through some websites, books and workshops. In gaining an understanding of how to make soap bars, I preferred Youtube to help me to visualise the related process difficulty and technique.

Then, I bought some books to get the basic knowledge of soap making. Those books provided me information about the ingredients, equipment, safety issues etc. Next, I attended related workshop to directly observe the process of soap making method.

As chemical ingredient such as sodium hydroxide is used to make soaps, I need to search information about health and safety. I learn the character of ingredients such as oils, whether they are irritant to skin or not. What chemical-resistant equipment should be used? Where to find the suppliers? Are they applying environmental sustainable concept or not? etc.

All information that I have collected, are essential but they are raw. I need to apply my accounting, financial and marketing knowledge to make soap bars. There are some considerations to create my own soap recipes. These considerations include costs of ingredients and equipment, how to finance my soap experiments and who my target customers are. I think it will be better to discuss them in different articles.

The point is that you need to consider some information before you make a decision.


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